Transcription of the Week 4 contributions, available in the original at https://dgroups org/worldbank/gatnet/discussions/9bfb75a5








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Mainstreaming Gender Dialogue 2015 – Week 4




Mainstreaming Gender Dialogue 2015 – Week 4

Transcription of the Week 4 contributions, available in the original at https://dgroups.org/worldbank/gatnet/discussions/9bfb75a5

Corrections Suggestions for improvement to admin@ecoplan.org

1
admin@ecoplan.org on November 22
Gatnet postings for Week 4: 23-30 November 2015. Discussion leader Priyanthi Fernando
2

Priyanthi Fernando

on November 23
Dear members of GATNET Greetings from Doha airport!!!!!!

A little disappointed that Peter and Hans' contributions didn't inspire
more contributions from those who have yet to share their experiences in
this discussion - so a reminder that there is still time to do so.

Also an apology, I need to do a little bit of work pulling the ideas
generated into a researchable questions - and have not been able to do that
because I have been travelling this week.

So till I get my act together, we look forward to hearing from you!

Best wishes

Priyanthi
your moderator
3

admin@ecoplan.org on November 24
Dear Friends, all 213 of you in 48 countries spread literally all over this gasping planet,

I would like to join my voice to Hans's this morning when he asks us to take a bit of time and show Pri how much we appreciate her unselfish initiative to bring us together to swap stories about the difficulties and barrier faced by women and girls in rural areas who all too often are silently exploited (I would underline both of those words) as mute carriers of wood, water and produce, at great cost to each of them personally and to society as a whole. And all the more so since there is much that if we put our heads together we can do about it. If we look and listen. And share our stories.

A number of the good stories and observations that I have read over these last weeks have brought new thoughts and awarenesses to my mind. The list is quite long, but let me cite just one small observation that came out of one report: namely that it is extremely important for women (more so than men) to know the exact time of their arrival back home, for all the reasons we can figure out once we have that small thought in our heads. And you know the way it is with ideas, one small such unexpected observation engages us and our minds begin to work more faciley and creatively on our challenging topic.

So please, tell us more stories, tell us more about your work, your hopes and your needs in the topic area that Pri has chosen for us to explore together.

PHOTO LIBRARY:


One final wrinkle you may wish to consider. In order to try to bring in more people in more places who share our concerns we set up an informal Facebook page some time back at https://www.facebook.com/groups/gatnet/ which serves two I think useful functions. The first is to expand our reader and participant base here on Dgroups. But hardly less important it gives us a place where we can also easily share images and photographs which can also carry important messages. You can see the library as it exists thus far at https://www.facebook.com/groups/gatnet/photos/It is only just getting underway, but there are already several dozens of pictures which also tell a story about women, girls, transport and the future we can make in rural areas and cities of the developing world.

Kind regards from France,

Eric Britton


4

Hans Mhalila on November 24
As Priyanthi has pointed out, I also wonder, what has happened during the week past and beginning this week? H ow can we continue sharing without discussion of emerging issues from the practice of different experiences in the world, especially Africa, where mainstreaming gender equity in  rural transport is  a big issue? Let us continue to share stories! Hans

5

jun.hada@eda.admin.ch on November 24 attachment
1. In the context of Nepal, the gender and social inclusion policy exists for all types of local infrastructure projects managed by local government. (Local Infrastructure Development Policy 2004 – article 7.8 - http://www.dolidar.gov.np/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/LocalInfrastructureDevelopmentPolicy2061-EN1.pdf). This is also applied for rural transport sector (local roads, trial bridges, local roads bridge) as it lies within the jurisdictions of the local (village and district governments). The gender and social inclusion policy in rural transport sector is developed around 2009/10 (please see attached documents). The drivers of this policy is mainly with the experiences of the donor funded projects DRSP (SDC), DRILP (SDC/ADB), RAP( DFIF), RRRSDP (DFID/ADB/SDC). Follow-up GESI in Transport sector wide policy was also prepared.

2. It is mainly the donor funded programmes where these are mainstreamed and reported and monitored well. When it comes to government’s own projects, I am sure there are lots of challenges in monitoring and reporting while translating policies into practice. While the DP funded projects have specific resources (human and financial) to monitor them while, Government alone does not have it and they see this as their constraint to do it. I do not see the GESI desks/focal persons in the district development committees^’ offices.

3. Again, in terms of challenges – I would say the will at the level of Government officials (at districts and local governments level who are currently officiating local bodies, no elected representation there), to have it implemented. There is also a political mechanism for advisory roles in the districts ad villages in the absence of local elected representatives, who should have political will to do so. If both of this is there, the required resources can be allocated to implement and monitor it. Other is the capacity on how to report and monitor – the qualitative aspect of it. E.g. Local bodies have to spend at least 35% of the capital budget to be spent for the direct benefit of women and children, they have to have 33% representation of women in all infrastructure committees managed by communities – sometimes in the districts, they report that this is happening, but when we check/monitor how it is happening – the situation looks different. Some defend that the ‘’targeted fund went to build roads and women also use roads’’ – does that really mean GESI mainstreaming ? Same goes with representation of women and excluded (in numbers, they are fine), however, what is not understood is how well these representatives given the space for making key decisions. This is what is missing – how to qualitatively monitor the results and at the same time, develop smart indicators for that.

Thanks and regards, Jun
Original message

Gender Equality & Social Inclusion Policy folder (v.01 - 09 July).doc 0.1MB

Gender Policy on Local Transport_draft 24 June 2010.doc 0.1MB
6

Paul Starkey on November 24
Dear colleagues

In response to the request for more stories, I would like to expand on the ideas shared by Peter Njenga, relating to surveys carried out by an IFRTD team in Cameroun, Kenya and Tanzania. As Peter noted, these were largely anecdotal observations: insights the researchers gained from interviews and discussions, rather than statistically-significant survey results.
In all three countries, the rapid expansion of motorcycle taxis has made them the most important form of transport on many low-volume rural roads. However, they seem to be invariably operated by men (often young men). The researchers did not hear of any women operators of rural motorcycle taxis.
In countries where motorcycles and motor scooters are common, women often drive them in urban areas, but it is very unusual for women to be operators of motorcycle taxis (the example of women operators of three-wheelers in Kathmandu is unusual and was an urban initiative).

In the rural surveys in Africa, while women and men liked the lower prices of rural taxis, minibuses or buses, these were generally infrequent or unavailable on the small roads that connected villages to the small market towns (where there are important services). Therefore, women rated motorcycle taxis highly, even for travel to peri-natal facilities – their reliable availability was more important than the disadvantages of higher price, lower safety and possible discomfort.
In the surveys, the majority of motorcycle taxis passengers were men: was this a cultural gender issue? Yes and no. The researchers concluded the lower use by women was a gender issue, but due to women’s lower access to available money, rather than any cultural taboos. In general, women opted for safer transport options, when this was possible: and men generally responded appropriately: women were more likely to be in the middle of an over-crowded vehicle, with men more likely to be hanging on to the edges.


However, women in Tanzania raised some fascinating insights into the safety of rural motorcycle taxis. They argued that it was better to travel with two women passengers on a motorcycle, as they felt more secure and jointly it was easier to ‘enforce’ safe driving speeds and practices (with poor driver behaviour thought to be responsible for many motorcycle crashes). They also objected to the official ‘one passenger only’ rule as women were often responsible for trips with children, sick people, elderly relatives or people with disability.

As the main ‘caring’ gender, they were responsible for helping others to travel to clinics or other facilities, and when motorcycle taxis were the main mode of transport, a woman often had to travel with another person, holding them safely. With two passengers on a motorcycle, the cost is lower, per passenger, and (according to women interviewed) it can be safer too.


7

Priyanthi Fernando on November 24
Thank you Jun for your post and the documents that I have now loaded into
the GATNET library! So it seems that we now have TWO countries, one in
Asia (Nepal) and one in Africa (Tanzania) where gender has been
mainstreamed into transport policy or rural/local transport policy..
Are there others out there?

It would seem from the documentation (see GATNET library for a link to the
Tanzania Transport Policy) that the guidelines for Nepal are much more
detailed than for Tanzania, but Hans has also suggested some indicators in
his post that can be used to monitor whether this mainstreaming has indeed
been translated into practice. I wondered whether the implementation of
the policy suffered in Tanzania because it did not come with the kind of
guidelines that Jun shared. How useful do you think those documents are?

It is a sad indictment when gender mainstreaming has to be a donor driven
agenda and not generated by equity concerns within the countries
themselves. And yes, donor funded projects may have the resources for
monitoring that governments do not.

I am wondering whether there are examples of women's organisations (either
government or civil society) monitoring transport investments from a gender
perspective? Can we not get the women's organisations, the women's
ministries, the women activists involved? to monitor and to act as a
pressure group?

any thoughts? experiences?

Priyanthi
your moderator
8

Priyanthi Fernando on November 24
Just thought I'd make a separate comment on the information that Paul
Starkey shared, that added to what Peter Njenga had talked about earlier.
The stories themselves are interesting and their lack of 'statistical
significance' does not in anyway diminish their value - given that
qualitative research is an accepted method of investigation.

I am more intrigued by whether all good transport researchers, women and
men, incorporate gender issues into the design of their research
questions? is this the same for both rural transport services research?
and rural infrastructure research?

I know there are a number of researchers, knowledge managers in this group
- so will be interested to hear from you.

ReCAP is essentially a research community of practice - so would also be
interested to hear from members of that community how gender is
mainstreamed into the work that ReCAP commissions...

Priyanthi
your moderator
9

pmchipulu@yahoo.co.uk on November 25
Dear Priyanthi,


I am doing a Phd Study on "alleviating Rural Poverty through Community Transport Infrastructure Development in Zambia".  I have developed some research questions and they did not adequately cover the issue of Gender Main Streaming.

So you have given me some food for thought I would like to fully incorporate this aspect in my research. I will be interested in getting some more ideas on this issue.  I would like to get segregated data(women, men, children  on the impact of CTI development in other countries and this can be integrated in the main development agenda of the country.


Rgds
Protasio
   
10

pmchipulu@yahoo.co.uk on November 25 attachment
Dear All,
The Transport Policy for Zambia of 2002 did not address the issue of Gender Main Streaming adequately, see attached copy for your comments. 

However, The Government of the Republic of Zambia, is reviewing the policy and a new one we be in place next year and it will address the issues of Gender Main Streaming in more detail.


Protasio

Tranport Policy- Zambia 2002.pdf 0.1MB
11

Barney Muckle on November 25
Hello all,


I would like to add some comments to those of Paul and Peter about
motorcycle taxis. The first thing is that they cannot be used without
some means of access via a mobile as they do not come unless ordered.
In the last decade or so mobiles have become so common and networks
have spread.

Having just carried out an hour's conversation with two users I was
amassed to learn of the organisation existing country wide in Kenya.

Firstly a few technical aspects of their popularity. The first is that
they need a single track only like a person, bicycle or donkey which enables them to travel
where other vehicles from 3 or 4 wheeled 'tuks' to 4WD Land rovers
are unable to travel. The driver and his (her) passengers have
developed believable skills in navigating difficult stretches.

Organisation - After the initial 'free for all' with many disputes
over territory the Government establish a system which is in operation
over the whole country.


It depends on riders in an area forming a group which is registered
with the Community Development Association where the details of each
member are recorded. Each group has a chairperson and treasurer with a
bank account while there are some lady members but somewhat
indistinguishable from the men due to the clothing. The local police
have a record of groups and members and check their clothing and
insurance.

Each group is self governing with a high standard of discipline. The
rules allow you to carry someone from the Center HQ but you must
travel back empty. The center is placed near two mataru or 14 seat
taxis stop from either direction so very convenient for those going
into the rural area off tarmac. Each group member has a number and
records are kept to distribute evenly the work.

If someone wants to go beyond the next section they can choose to have
the vehicle wait and pay or it returns but must be empty and you then
take a local vehicle back home. Cheaters are all known and mobiled to
HQ . All members pay to join and choose their own limit of members.

Each member pays about Ksh 500 or US$5 per month as medical expenses
in case of accident unfortunately too common.

Free operators exist but apart from goods only wives and children can
be carried and ID's are needed. All transactions are carried out by
the famous MPESA system on the mobile which has had an amazing effect
in reducing transport costs.

The other thing is the level of ingenuity in carrying goods. I
recently bought a 1000 litre
plastic water tank and expected to have to pay for a small 1200 cc
Datsun pick up which are very scarce. The seller said 'Wait a
minute' and along came a motor cycle. Can you imagine what you wouldfitted across the poles at the rear. He climbed on and drove home
cautiously.

It took little time for mechanics to understand the workings and now
there are spares or if not the mobile will, via MPESA, have them
brought and paid for in two hours from Nairobi.

I could ramble on but would like comments.

Best

Barney

.

'
12

Peter Njenga on November 25
Dear all,

This is just a bit of the current discussion, but it is linked to an issue raised Priyanthi earlier - Should gender mainstreaming be transformative? Thought I would throw in a question of the extent to which gender issues are integrated into the training curricula of various transport disciplines? 
I know many disciplines offer gender courses at the moment, but what are the current trends? Gender training that is fully integrated into the curriculum, or is it being done as a stand- alone subject? Any good practices on this? Any audits?

Related to this, is enough being done to encourage women in transport professions? Are there specific ways in which more resources could be ramped up to support capacity building on gender in a sustained way?

Best regards,

Peter
13

Hans Mhalila on November 25 attachment
Tanzania had an opportunity to a transformation approach to  gender equity mainstreaming in rural transport. At the pilot level of VTTP this seemed obvious especially with the empowerment model of Morogoro District. The best practice was done and was well conceived by the study team. Will make the document available tomorrow.

However efforts to integrate the model during  up-scaling was not neatly captured. This is evidenced by how gender is briefly tackled in the Local Government Transport Program 2008-2012.

I suggest that, gender equity is a right from the trans formative point of view. As such, in addition to policy, Gender equity law need to be in place for the sector. The law will elaborate how resources are allocated and responsibility distributed for gender equity, for instance in local infrastructure contracting process, minimum access to water point, for instance, the policy says a maximum standard is 400 Meters from the household.

This should be legally protected to enforce demand for accountability. Look at the weakness of indicators for measuring of gender equity in the LGTP, as LGTP was used  as a guideline to local government in preparing their transport projects plans, budget and operational aspects of maintenance. In Tanzania, we had a D-group  under the IFRTD, this was a community of practice with interest in Rural transport. I am not sure if it still exists.
HansLGTP2008-2012 attached.

Transformation is the creation and change of a whole new form, function or structure. To transform is to create something new that has never existed before and could not be predicted from the past. Transformation is a “change” in mindset. It is based on learning a system of profound knowledge  and taking actions based on leading with knowledge and courage.
LGTP-Doc-21DEC.pdf 0.1MB
14

Holy Ralimamy on November 26
I am Holy Ralimamy from NGO Lalana based in Madagascar which is a French speaking country. I hope you don't mind if I express myself in French.
NGO Lalana : what we mean by gender mainstreaming, and why it is important for the rural transport sector (Part 1)

* For a serviceable machine translation into English, please click to https://www.facebook.com/groups/gatnet/permalink/970467173024282/ - and go to bottom of page.
___________________

L’expérience de Lalana en matière d’intégration du genre dans le transport réside dans la mise en œuvre des programmes d’actions sociales en accompagnement des travaux routiers sur la RN2 et sur la RN6. Bien que les routes réhabilitées soient classées nationales, les zones desservies et les bénéficiaires des actions se trouvent en général dans des Communes rurales.

L’intégration du genre dans ces programmes a commencé par l’identification de tous les usagers des routes, non seulement par sexe, mais également selon leurs catégories, de bien cerner leurs situations au cas par cas, et de trouver avec eux les possibilités de collaboration qui peuvent répondre à la fois aux objectifs de l’action, à savoir la préservation du patrimoine routier et de ses environs immédiats, et résoudre leurs problèmes.

En général, on a trouvé 3 grandes catégories d’usagers de la route :
- LES RIVERAINS : 
les écoliers (filles et garçons)
les petits commerçants (hommes et femmes vendant des produits artisanaux, des produits locaux, et tenant des gargotes et épiceries), 
les travailleuses de sexe (jeunes filles et femmes chefs de ménage)
les agriculteurs (hommes et femmes) dont les champs se trouvent aux bords des routes, 
et tous ceux qui se rendent régulièrement aux places de marché (enfants, jeunes femmes et hommes), soit pour vendre, pour se ravitailler, ou pour s’informer.

- LES TRANSPORTEURS : ce sont essentiellement des camionneurs et des chauffeurs de taxis brousses. Ce sont tous des hommes, mais leurs métiers présentent des particularités.

- ET LES VOYAGEURS : les touristes, les vacanciers, et les particuliers.

Ces différentes catégories de gens ont des problèmes et besoins spécifiques qu’il faut tenir compte dans la mise en œuvre des actions d’accompagnement aux travaux routiers.
Les transporteurs s’arrêtent le long de la route pour se restaurer et pour se reposer. Il leur fallait des aires de stationnement pour ne pas gêner la circulation.

Les petits commerçants ont à la fois besoin d’une bonne visibilité pour favoriser leurs commerces, mais aussi de sécurité. Ils ont besoin des emplacements à la fois sécurisés et facilement accessibles. Des placettes ont été aménagées pour eux, où il est possible de se stationner, où on a mis des plaques indicatives, et qui préservent la route et mettent en sécurité et les vendeurs, et leurs clients.

Les travailleuses de sexe qui répondent aux besoins des camionneurs surtout, ont besoin d’être informés sur les risques et dangers liés à leur métier, notamment sur la transmission des infections sexuellement transmissibles et du VIH/SIDA.

Les femmes chefs de ménage, qui sont très nombreuses dans la zone, ont besoin de travailler pour briser le cercle vicieux dans lequel elles se trouvent : la prostitution engendre des grossesses non désirées qui donnent des charges supplémentaires. Elles ont été formées et appuyées pour monter et gérer des activités génératrices de revenus.

Les écoliers ont eu des difficultés à se rendre à l’école, surtout pendant la période de pluie. Un petit pont et leur sentier ont été aménagés pour faciliter leur marche quotidienne vers l’école.

Il est fréquent dans les zones rurales que les bords de route servent de place de marché faute d’infrastructure adéquate. Ce qui entrave la circulation, et peut être source d’accidents de la route. La mise en place des infrastructures communautaires (places de marché et bornes fontaines) protège les riverains (notamment les femmes et enfants) des accidents de la route et répond à des besoins pratiques.
L’importance de l’intégration du genre réside dans la spécification de toutes les parties prenantes au projet, qui amène à l’identification de leurs besoins spécifiques selon leur genre, et d’entreprendre des actions particulières à leur intention. L’intégration du genre accroit l’efficacité des actions sociales d’accompagnement mises en œuvre par le projet.

See Translation: please click to https://www.facebook.com/groups/gatnet/permalink/970467173024282/
15

Priyanthi Fernando on November 26 attachment
Dear all,
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