Course 1: Pre-industrial Society








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ENGLISH ECONOMY
Course 1: Pre-industrial Society


primary sector
agriculture

agricultural economy / revolution
subsistence agriculture

Secteur primaire
agriculture

économie agricole / révolution
agriculture de subsistance

to cultivate land

to cultivate a crop

cultiver la terre

cultiver une denrée

crop

food crop : wheat, maize (US corn)
subsistence crops
cash crop : cotton, rubber, coffee etc.

récolte, culture, denrée

récolte alimentaire : blé, maïs
culture pour autoconsommation
culture commerciale / de rente coton, caoutchouc, café etc.

fishing, hunting

mining, forestry
commodity

raw material(s)

minerals

bullion

pêche, chasse

exploitation minière, sylviculture
produit de base - marchandises

matière(s) première(s)

minéarux

or/argent en lingot(s)



1) To sell agricultural products on the market, traditional societies abandon farming of

subistence agriculture
2)Commodities or raw materials are characterised by very strong price fluctuations, which tend to make the export earnings of developing countries unstable.
3) Cuba has become a recent exporter of cash crop such as coffee and grapefruit.
4) In most developed, high-income countries, the primary sector only represents a small share of GDP (=PIB) and employment.


  1. Historically, a rise in agricultural production has been a pre-condition for industrialisation.

social class(es )

landlord
farmer

peasant farmer

tenant farmer

peasant
sharecropper

agricultural labourer

classe(s) sociale(s)

propriétaire foncier
fermier

paysan (propriétaire de ses terres)

cultivateur à bail

paysan (sans terre)
métayer

travailleur agricole







artisan, craftsman

entrepreneur, capitalist

manufacturer

worker

artisan

entrepreneur, capitaliste

fabricant

travailleur

workshop – factory

atelier – usine

guilds

a trade, a craft

a profession

Corporation

un métier

une profession




  1. The enclosure movement pushed many peasant farmer off the land and into cities.


7) Manufacturing began first in small-scale workshops before it moved into factories.
8) The development of industrial activity led to a decline of the medieval guilds as goods

could be produced with less-skilled labour.



yield – return, rate of return
crop yield – output per hectare

the yield on government bonds
to yield/produce

rendement, rapport, taux de rendement
rendement des cultures

rendement des obligations d’Etat
produire

output, production

input(s)
production factors

capital and labour

capital equipment / capital goods

production

intrant(s)
facteurs de production

capital et travail

biens d’équipement




  1. Increasing agricultural production was a pre-condition for the Industrial Revolution.


10) The “Green Revolution”, irrigation and the use of fertilisers helped increase crop

yield in many developing countries during the late 1960s and 1970s.
11) Investment in capital goods is vital to raising industrial production.


goods – physical products for sale

“a good” (used in economics)

goods and services

products

bien

un bien

biens et services

produits



12) As banks and insurance companies merge, they seek to provide their clients with new

products


  1. The price of a a godd is determined by the interaction of demand and supply.


14) New tourism services are permanently being created by travel companies to attract new

clients.
Rostow describe the industialisation process, traditionnal soceity are completely statics, no muvement. Then pre conditions for the take-off. He was adviser for president Kennedy.

***

David Landes wrote "The wealth and Poverty of Nations" this was published in the late 1990's and he provides a generally liberal and Euro-centric view of global development.

Landes considers that development began in Europe for numerous reasons. Europe's temperate climate was favourable to agriculture. Technological and institutional change also began wih the Renaissance, the invention of printing, the emergence of banking ( in Italy ) and Europe's discovery of the New World and other continents.

This led to new trade relations, to capital accumulation, to the exploitation of non- European labour in the farm of slavery. In the 18th century the emergence of the rule of law ( Etat de droit) and technological invention ( like the steam engine =machine à vapeur) allowed markets and industrial production to develop. So for Landes industrialisation was not an accidental process but a long turn historical development which occured and a favourable conditions in Europe.


  1. There is virtually no economic growth in a developping countries


16) During its drive to maturity, a country’s ??? undergoes rapid change, as skill requirements evolve and economic activity shifts geographically.
Read the text below, then answer the following questions:
Feudal society was characterised by agricultural production, mainly of subsistence crops. This was carried out by peasant farmers. A direct share of their output was taken by landlords. Other primary sector activities also existed, such as hunting, fishing, forestry and some mining, as they had always done.

Goods production was undertaken by artisans, often organised in “guilds”. This allowed them to ensure (assurer) the quality of work carried out by fellow tradesmen, and enabled them to protect, themselves from open competition. The artisans undertook small-scale manufacturing, owning their capital equipment, and selling their goods into the market. Craftsmen were also involved in construction.

Lastly, some service sector activities existed. These were mainly what are now called “personal services”, provided by domestic servants. But a few professional services were also carried out by lawyers, bankers, doctors etc.

Agriculture, craft production and trade were very strongly regulated by government. Guilds were protected, and entry into such “trades” required long apprenticeships (apprentissage).

Are the following statements true or false?
17)Landlords were directly involved in physical work. (true/false)


  1. Entry into particular trades was open. (ture/false)


* * *

In the late Middle Ages, various factors came together which began changing the established order. Among other things, these included a certain increase in agricultural output, technological developments (such as the invention of printing), and Europe’s discovery of the rest of the world.

Trading networks had existed for a long time throughout (tout au long) much of the world, but Europe’s age of exploration, from the end of the 15th century onwards, led to a major rise in trade among the various regions of the globe. Yet this rise in foreign trade was often regulated too, with

government (or the monarch) selling trading monopolies to private entrepreneurs.

The key national aim of such foreign trade was the accumulation of money, in the form of

gold and silver. This was the age of mercantilism, when precious metals, or bullion, were

considered as the measure of wealth. Governments therefore sought to limit imports, as

Britain did, for example, by banning Indian cotton in 1700.
Are the following statements true or false?

  1. Foreign trade was important in the medieval economy. (true/false)


20) When trade between Europe and the rest of the world increased, it was tightly controlled

by government. (true/false)


  1. Trade was seen to promote wealth as it increased the diversity of goods available to

consumers. (true/false)

In the 18th century, the French Physiocrats began to challenge this system. They favoured the development of liberalised agricultural activity, though significantly they did not believe that manufacturing or service activities created wealth. Quesnay developed the Tableau Economique, which in some ways anticipates modern input-output models, to show how agricultural output is used throughout the economy.
Le modèle créé Quesnay se composait de trois déménageurs économique. Les "propriétaires" de classe se composait de propriétaires uniquement. «Productif» de classe se composait de tous les ouvriers agricoles. Le «stérile» classe est composée d'artisans et de commerçants.

  1. L'agriculteur produit des aliments 1500 sur un terrain loué par le propriétaire. Sur ce 1500, il conserve d'aliments pour nourrir 600 lui-même, son bétail, et tous ouvriers qu'il embauche. Il vend les 900 restants dans le marché pour 1 $ par unité d'aliment. Il garde de 300 $ (150 $ pour lui-même, 150 $ pour son ouvrier) pour acheter des produits non agricoles (vêtements, articles ménagers, etc) des commerçants et artisans. Ce produit de 600 $ du bénéfice net, à laquelle se réfère tant que produit net de Quesnay. [1]

  2. L'artisan fabrique 750 unités de l'artisanat. Pour produire à ce niveau, il a besoin de 300 unités de nourriture et de 150 unités de produits étrangers. Il a aussi besoin de subsistance de 150 unités de nourriture et de 150 unités de l'artisanat pour se maintenir en vie pendant l'année. Le total est de 450 unités de nourriture, 150 unités de l'artisanat, et 150 unités de produits étrangers. Il achète 450 $ de nourriture de l'agriculteur et 150 $ de marchandises en provenance du commerçant, et il vend 600 unités de l'artisanat sur le marché pour 600 $. Parce que l'artisan doit utiliser l'argent qu'il a fait de la vente de son artisanat pour acheter des matières premières pour la production de l'année suivante, il n'a pas de bénéfice net.

  3. Le propriétaire est seulement un consommateur de nourriture et de l'artisanat et ne produit aucun produit à tous. Son supposé «contribution» au processus de production est la redistribution de 600 $ en location de terres de l'agriculteur paie pour l'utilisation de la terre naturelle. Le propriétaire utilise 300 $ de loyer pour acheter la nourriture de l'agriculteur sur le marché et 300 $ pour acheter l'artisanat de l'artisan. Parce qu'il est purement un consommateur, Quesnay considère le propriétaire du premier moteur de l'activité économique. C'est son désir de consommer qui lui cause de dépenser son revenu de location entière sur l'alimentation et de l'artisanat et qui fournit un revenu aux autres classes.

  4. Le marchand est le mécanisme pour exporter des produits alimentaires en échange d'importations étrangères. Le marchand utilise les 150 $ qu'il a reçue de l'artisan pour acheter la nourriture au marché, et il est supposé qu'il prend la nourriture hors du pays de l'échanger pour plus de biens étrangers.
Figure 1 Diagramme de production pour le Tableau de Quesnay (4)
L'économie produit un surplus de nourriture, et ni l'agriculteur ni l'artisan peut se permettre de consommer plus d'un niveau de subsistance alimentaire. Le bailleur est supposé être la consommation à un niveau de satiété, par conséquent, il ne peut pas consommer plus. Comme la nourriture ne peut pas être stockée facilement, il est nécessaire de le vendre à quelqu'un qui peut l'utiliser. C'est là que le marchand fournit la valeur.


The idea of liberalised economic activity, or a regime of laissez-faire as it is called in English,

was subsequently picked up by Adam Smith, who is generally acknowledged as the founder

of modern economics.

At the same time, that is to say during the 18th century, a number of factors combined to launch(lancement) what is known as the Industrial Revolution. They include the rise of agricultural

production, due to higher crop yields, and the completion of the enclosure of land, which pushed labour off the land. Together these two trends provided surplus resources to be used in

other economic activities: a workforce was therefore available for industry as was the food needed to sustain it.
Are the following statements true or false?

22) The Physiocrats believed that trade in manufactured goods increases wealth. (true/false)

23) Greater food output was a precondition for the Industrial Revolution.

* * *

Put the following verbs into the correct tense:
24) Important too, (to be) ________ the so-called banking revolution in England which (to

see) ______ the creation sophisticated, deep financial markets that (to grow) ______ up to

manage government debt, incurred by war and imperial expansion. The rise of capital

markets also (to make) ________ it possible to mobilise capital for investment.
25) Technological progress and especially the invention of a number of mechanical and

industrial procedures (notably the use of steam-power) also (to open) ______ up new

possibilities for raising output. Lastly, it (passive: to be suggested) ______also ________ that

Europe’s, and especially Britain’s triangular slave trade (to allow) ______ vital capital to be

accumulated and used in industrial investment.
26) Development (to occur) ______ above all in a certain number of basic industries: coal,

iron, and textiles. These activities (to be) _____ often ______ the first industrial activities to

emerge in all countries experiencing developed.
27) Later, in the 19th century these activities (passive: to be followed) ____________ by rapid

growth in the railway industry in particular, and then by the so-called 2nd Industrial

Revolution as of the 1870s. This was based far more on the application of science to industry,

and the emergence of electricity as a source of power on the one hand, and the development

of chemicals on the other.

* * *

Complete the text below using the following words:

population organisation linear phenomena mass shipbuilding expropriation

protectionism
28) Described in this way, the Industrial Revolution has traditionally been seen as a ______

process. Rostow’s 5 stages of development ending in the age of high ______ consumption are

perhaps the most obvious example of this. This approach to development has been criticised,

as essentially being a western form of economic and social ______ that is exported to the rest

of the world.
29) Many of the ______ which accompanied the Industrial Revolution in Europe are still

prevalent in the world today, though the pace of change and the inter-connectedness of the

world economy are obviously now far greater than they used to be.
30) Peasant farmers are still being pushed off the land, either by ______ or by the shift of

agricultural production into cash crops, which undermines subsistence societies.
31) Urbanisation in the developing countries is extremely rapid, a situation which is

compounded by high ______ growth rates.
32) Industries like textiles, iron and steel, ______ – in short activities which are labour

intensive – are still key sectors in the development process.
33) The reaction by the industrialised countries has been to try to manage the competitive

challenge from the developing world. Thus, these industries are often subject to ______, so

that working populations in the industrialised countries have time to adapt to their loss of

competitiveness.

Comprehension questions:

  1. What were the pre-conditions for the Industrial Revolution?




  1. What are the main differences between the feudal and capitalist societies?




  1. Which industrial sectors were the first to develop?


4) In what way do today’s developing countries follow the development model of the

industrialised world?
5) How does the industrialised world react to competition from the developing countries?

Answers:


Question 17/ false, 18/ false, 19/ false, 20/ true, 21/ false, 22/ false, 23/false, 24/ were, saw,

grew, made, 25/ opened, is (also) suggested, allowed, 26/ occurred, have (often) been, 27/

were followed, 28/ linear, mass, organisation, 29/ phenomena, 30/ expropriation, 31/

population, 32/ shipbuilding, 33/ protectionism.
Course 2 : Classical economics
Smith : An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations
Find synonyms :

improved examined functions usually productions
Adam Smith is generally held to be the founder of modern economics. Writing in the late 18th century, he described numerous economic phenomena which are seen to be at the heart of the market mechanism and capitalist economic production.
To begin with, Smith notes haw economic activity – and more specifically manufacturing output may be enhanced by the division of labour (peut être améliorée par la division du travail.). By splitting up the production process (En divisant le processus de production ), the output of labour may be increased as tasks are simpler to learn and time is saved in moving from one activity to another.
Improved = enhance

examined = describe

functions = activity

usually = generally

production = output
*the Enlightment = siècle des Lumières
According to Smith the division of labour is only limited by the capacity to exchange, in other words to sell products into the market and with the earnings to buy other products. This observation leads him logically to favour free markets, in which individuals may participate without government regulation.
Indeed (en effet), Smith affirms that such free markets are capable of generating a harmonious organisation of society. In a much quoted sentence he notes that : “It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer ( brasseur), or the baker (boulanger) that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest. We address ourselves, not to their humanity but to their self-love, and never talk to them of our own necessities but of their advantage”. This view of the market as spontaneously coordinating economic activity has more generally been referred to as the “invisible hand”.
Benefit = advantage

restricted = limited

goods =necessities

kindness =self-loves

production =


Wealth, wealthy, the wealthy

Richesse, riche, les riches

Division of labour

Division du travail

Skill, technical skill

(on a CV : Language and computer skills)
skilled labour

unskilled labour

Habilité, adresse, dextérité, aptitude technique

travail qualifié, main do'euvre qualifié

travail non-qualifiée

Exchange, to exchange

Échange, échanger


Use the following words to complete the sentence : skill, productive, directed, labour
Chapter I : “ The greatest improvement in the production powers of labour, and the greater part of the skill, dexterity, and judgement with which it is anywhere directed, or applied, seem to have been the effects of the division labour”
Chapter III : put the folowing words in the correct order to make a sentence.
The division of labour is limited by the extent of the market.


Value, use value

La valeur, valeur d'usage

Exchange value

Valeur d'échange

Price

production cost

Prix

coût de la production

To purchase

purchasing power

Acheter

pouvoir d'chat


Ricardo. Chapter VII “On Foreign Trade”. The principles of Political Economy and Taxation.
Use the following words to complete the paragraph : good, economically, free, beneficial, distributes, interest.
Under a system of perfectly free commerce, each country naturally devotes its good capital and labour to such employments as are most beneficial to each. This pursuit of individual advantage is admirably connected with the universal good of the whole.
By stimulating industry, by rewarding ingenuity, and by using most efficaciously the peculiar powers bestowed by nature ( pouvoir particulier donnée par la nature), it distributes labour most effectively and most economically : while, by increasing the general mass of productions, it diffuses general benefit, and binds together, by one common tie of interest (lien commun des intérêts) and intercourse(rapports), the universal society of nations throughout(à travers) the civilised world.


Foreign trade

free trade

Commerce extérieur

libre échange

  • Exportable commodities

Marchandises échangeables

(un)tradable commodities

Bien/ marchandises non échangeable

Comparative advantage

absolute advantage

Avantage comparatif

avantage absolu

Natural endowment(s)

Dotation naturelle

Trade specialisation

Spécialisation des échanges

Competition

to compete
competitiveness

Concurrence

faire concurrence à quelq'un
compétitivité

Free competition

unfair competition

to be in competition with someone

Libre concurrence

concurrence déloyale

être en compétition avec quelqu'un


Marx

Labour

Travail

Labouring power

Force de travail

Surplus value

rate of surplus value

absolute surplus value

Plus-value

taux de plus-value

plus value absolue

Means of productions

Moyens de production

Failing rate of profit

Baisse de rentabilité

Accumulation of capital

Accumulation du capital

Alienation

Aliénation

Industrial reserve army (no job)

Armée industrielle de réserve

Class struggle

Lutte des classes

Historical materialism

Matérialisme historique (fait observalble)

Proletariat

Prolétariat

Supersutrcutre

Supersutrcutre

Over-production

Surproduction

Necessaries

Produits de première nécessité

Private property ( of the means of production)

La propriété privée des moyens de productions

Marx K. “ Wages, price and profit” in Marx and Engels del. Works in One Volume,
Use the following words to complete the paragraph : quantity, selling, value, profits
Section VI : On an average, commodities are sold at their real value, and […] profit are derived from selling them at their values, that is, in proportion to the quantity of labour realised in them.
Working man, power, capitalist
Section VII : What the working man sells is not directly is Labour, bur his Labouring power, the temporary disposal of which he makes over to the capitalist.
Consumed, necessary, necessaries, wear out.
The Value of Labouring Power is determined by the quantity of labour necessary to produce it. The labouring power of a man exist only in his individuality. A certain mass of necessaries must be consumed by a man to grow up and maintain his life. But the man, like the machine will wear out (= s'user), and must be replaced by another man.
Proportion, reproduce, surplus time, working-day.
Section IX : The rate of surplus value, all other circumstances remaining the same, will depend on the working-day between that part of the proportion necessary to reproduce the value of the labouring power and the surplus time or surplus labour performed for the capitalist. It will, therefore, depend on the ration in which the working-day is prolonged over and above that extent, by working which the working man would only reproduce the value of his labouring power, or replace his wages.
Texte dictée :
Immanuel Wallerstein's – Historical Capitalism ( Le capitalisme historique en repère)
This is a general critic of capitalism as a world system.
Wallerstein also draws on Marx in analysing capitalism as a historical process, as a social system created over-time.

Wallerstein considers that the process of capital accumulation and the un ending expansion of the market economy are irrational.

In particular, Wallerstein hypothesises that global capitalist development actually lead to ever greater absolute poverty.

Wallerstein also notes that capitalism has expended throughout not so much to create new markets or access row materials but rather to draw more and more labour into the market economy.

Significantly, the intentional division of labour and division of labour as always based on racial lines : different races as historically done different work.
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