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titreNote to this Revised Edition, March 2008
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A Revised Bibliography of the Literature on Triumph, 2008

Robert Baldwin

Department of Art History

Connecticut College, Box 5411

New London CT 06320

Note to this Revised Edition, March 2008

In 1990, I published "A Bibliography of the Literature on Triumph" in Barbara Wisch and Susan Munshower, eds., Triumphal Celebrations and the Rituals of Statecraft, University Park, 1990, pp. 358-385. Though I have added sixty-five references to this revised edition posted on my website, I have not conducted a search of the literature published in the last eighteen years.
Thanks to Professor Gordon Kipling of the UCLA English department for sending me some important new references including a recent bibliography of early modern festivals.
Watanabe-O’Kelly, Helen and Anne Simon, Festivals and Ceremonies:  A Bibliography of Works Relating to Court, Civic and Religious Festivals in Europe, 1500-1800 (London:  Mansell, 2000)

Inspired by anthropology and the new history, scholars of early modern Europe have increasingly turned their attention to the social function and meaning of ritual and festivity. A bibliography of this literature might well include twenty thousand entries and would require years of preparation. What follows is a more modest collection of the widely scattered secondary source literature on triumph and triumphal entries from antiquity through the seventeenth century. Traditional scholarship often described triumph as a secular, ancient Roman theme revived by Petrarch and first taken up widely by artists in Renaissance Italy. Unfortunately this account suffered from the shortcomings of a Burckhardtian historiography by overemphasizing a distinct Renaissance period at the expense of medieval traditions. The Renaissance return to classical models was often directed at early Christian antiquity with its thorough synthesis of pagan and Christian forms. In fact, triumphal forms pervaded medieval Christian art, architecture, literature, liturgy, and processional ceremony. It is hoped this bibliography will be useful in stumulating more balanced and synthetic discussions of early modern triumph and festivity.
This bibliography is divided into four sections: General, Ancient, Medieval, and Early Modern. Since bibliographies of most primary sources already exist, I have focused on secondary material. Thanks to Phyllis Pray Bober, Egbert Haverkamp-Begemann, Dagmar Eichberger, Gordon Kipling, Carol Janson, Bonner Mitchell, Loren Partridge, William Tronzo, and Joanna Woods-Marsden for their contributions.

Aggermann-Bellenberg, V., "Die Grazer Fronleichnamsprozession, von der Zeit ihrer Entstehung bis zu den Reformen des Aufgeklärten Absolutismus," Ph.D., University of Graz, 1982 [Corpus Christi processions].
Aries, Philippe, The Hour of Our Death, New York: Random House, 1981, 118-123.
Aulen, Gustav, Christus Victor, trans, A. G. Hebert, London: Society for Promoting Christian Literature, 1940 [originally published in Swedish in 1931].
Baldwin Smith, Earl, Architectural Symbolism of Imperial Rome and the Middle Ages, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1956, 19-37.
Cecchelli, Carlo, Il trionfo della croce, Rome: Edizione Paoline, 1954.
Doblhofer, E., "Bellepheron und Kirke zwischen Heiden und Christen," Festschrift für Robert Muth zum 65, Geburtstag, Innsbruck: 1983, 73-87.
Drabek, Anna Maria, Reisen und Reisenzeremoniell der römisch-deutschen Herrscher, Vienna: Verlag des Wissenschaftlichen Antiquariats H. Geyer, 1964.
Elbern, V. H., "Der eucharistische Triumph," Kölner Domblatt, 1958: 121-139.
Erffa, Hans Martin von, "Ehrenpforte," in Reallexikon zur deutschen Kunstgeschichte, Otto Schmitt, Ernst Gall, and L, H, Heydenreich, eds., vol, 4, Stuttgart, 1958, cols. 1443-1504.
Greenstone, Julius, "The Turkoman Defeat at Cairo," American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, 22, 1905-6, 144-175 [severed heads in baskets as trophies].
Liedtke, Walter, Royal Horse and Rider, New York: Abaris Books, 1989.
Marle, Raymond van, L'iconographie de l'art profane au moyen âge et à la renaissance, 2 vols., The Hague: N. Nijhoff, 1931-32, II., 111-151.
Muchembled, Robert, "La Fête au coeur. Une approche de la sociabilité septentrionale du XIVe au XXe siècle," Revue du Nord, 69, 1987, 473-481 (issue has 12 articles on French and Flemish festivals, 14th-20th centuries).
Neumann, Eckhard, "Das militante Triumphbild und seine Bedeutung in der monarchischen und christlichen Ikonographie," Das Münster, 35, 1982, 27-35.
North, Helen, From Myth to Icon: Reflections of Greek Ethical Doctrine in Literature and Art, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1979 [psychomachy].
Nyholm, Esther, "Triumph as a Motif in the Poems of Petrarch and in Contemporary and Later Art," in Flemming Andersen, ed., Medieval Iconography and Narrative: A Symposium, Odense: Odense University Press, 1980, 70-99.
Pelikan, Jaroslav, The Excellent Empire: The Fall of Rome and the Triumph of the Church, New York: Harper and Row, 1987.
Peterson, Erik, "Die Einholung des Kyrios," Zeitschrift für systematische Theologie, 7, 1930, 682-702 [Hellenistic and patristic royal entries].
Pfitzner, Victor, Paul and the Agon Motif, Leiden: Brill, 1967, 42-43, 157-164 [military imagery in pagan, Hebrew, and patristic religious thought].
Pochat, G., "Uber den triumphierenden und besiegten Tod," Konsthistorisk Tidskrift, 46, 1977, 65-71.
Rowland, Berryl, "The Horse and Rider Figure," University of Toronto Quarterly, 35, 1965-66, 246-59.
Roy, Rainer and Friedrich Kobler, "Festaufzug, Festeinzug," Reallexikon für Kunstgeschichte, Bd. 8, Munich, 1987, cols. 1417-1520.
Rubin, Miri, Corpus Christi, Cambridge, 1991
Schiller, Gertrud, Iconography of Christian Art, 2 vols., Greenwich: New York Graphic Society, vol. 2, 184-197, ["Arma christi"]; Ikonographie der christliche Kunst, 4 vols., Gütersloh, 1972-1976, vol. 3, 32-41, vol. 4, 106-117 ["Christus victor", "Ecclesia triumphans"].
Shaw, Courtney Ann, Researching Festivals and Their Relationship to the Visual Arts, University of Maryland, Art Library (n.d.).
Tanner, Marie, The Last Descendant of Aeneas, New Haven: Yale, 1993 [important work for triumph as world or cosmic history, late antique to early modern]
Thoby, Paul, Le crucifix des origines au Concile du Trente, Nantes: Bellanger, 1959.
Traeger, Jorg, Der reitende Papst. Ein Beitrag zur Ikonographie des Papsttums, Munich: Schnell & Steiner, 1970.
Wagner, Anni, "Der Reiter und sein Pferd. Seine Darstellung in der Kunst als mystisches Symbol, als Herrscher, Ritter und Held bis zur Verkörperung von Kraft und sportlicher Bewegung," Kunst, 82, 1970, 18-23.
Wickham, Glynne, Early English Stages, 1300-1600, 2 vols., 2nd. ed., London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1963, I., 51-111 [theatre and royal entry].
Woelcke, K., "Beiträge zur Geschichte des Triumph," Bonner Jahrbuch, 20, 1911, 127-235.
Yalouris, Nikolas, Pegasus, 3rd ed., Mainz: P. von Zabern, 1987.


Since exhaustive bibliographies on classical triumph are available in Versnel and MacCormack, I have listed only the most important older studies and some more recent works.
Alföldi, A., "Die Ausgestaltung des monarchischen Zeremoniells am römischen Kaiserhofe," Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts. Römische Abteilung, 49, 1934, 83-93, reprinted in idem, Die monarchische Repräsentation im römischen Kaiserreiche, Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1970.
Alföldi, A., "Hasta - summa imperii. The spear as embodiment of sovereignty in Rome," AJA, 63, 1959, 1-27
Anderson, J. K., Hunting in the Ancient World, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985 [political allegory].
Andreae, B., "Zum Triumphfries des Trajansbogens von Benevent," Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts. Römische Abteilung, 86, 1979, 325-329.
Angelicoussis, E., "The Panel Reliefs of Marcus Aurelius," Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts. Römische Abteilung, 91, 1, 1984, 141-205.
Barini, Concetta, Triumphalia. Imprese ed onori militari durante l'Impero Romano, Turin: Società Editrice Internazionale, 1952.
Barnes, T. D., Constantine and Eusebius, Cambridge, MA, 1981
Baynes, Norman, “Eusebius and the Christian Empire,” in MélangesBidezvol. 2, Brussels, 1934, 13-18

Bellinger, Alfred R. and Marjorie Alkins Berlincourt, Victory as a Coin Type, (Numismatic Notes and Monographs 149), New York, 1962.
Berefelt, Gunnar, A Study of the Winged Angel: The Origin of the Motif, Stockholm, Almquist & Wiksell, 1968.
Boer, W. den, "Trajan's Deification," Proceedings of the XIV International Congress of Papyrologists, London, 1975, 85-90.
Brilliant, Richard, "The Arch of Septimius Severus in the Roman Forum," Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome, 1967, 29.
Brilliant, Richard, "'I Come to You as Your Lord': Late Roman Imperial Art", in David Castriota, ed., Artistic Strategy and the Rhetoric of Power, Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1986, 27-38.
Brown, D. F., "The Arcuated Lintel and Its Symbolic Interpretation in Late Antique Art," American Journal of Archaeology, 46, 1942, 389-399.
Bruhl, Adrien, "Les influences hellénistiques dans le triomphe romain," MEFR, 46, 1929, 77-95
Cameron, Alan, Circus Factions: Blues and Greens at Rome and Byzantium, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976.
Cameron, Alan, Porphyrius the Charioteer, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973.
Cameron, Averil, Christianity and the Rhetoric of Empire, Berkeley, 1991
Cerfaux, Lucien, and Julien Tondriau, Le culte des souverains dans la civilisation greco-romaine, Tournai: Desclée & Cie, 1957.
Charlesworth, M. P., "Pietas and Victoria: The Emperor and the Citizen," Journal of Roman Studies, 33, 1943, 4-7.
Connor, W. R., "Tribes, Festivals, and Processions: Civic Ceremonial and Political Manipulation in Archaic Greece," Journal of Hellenic Studies, 107, 1987, 40-50.
Courcelle, P., "Le Serpent à face humaine dans la numismatique impérial du Ve siècle," Mélanges d'archéologie et d'histoire offerts à A. Piganiol, 1, Paris: 1966, 343-353.
Drake, H. A., Constantine and the Bishops: The Politics of Intolerance, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000
Dunabin, Katherine, "The Victorious Charioteer on Mosaics and Related Monuments," American Journal of Archaeology, 86, 1982, 65-89.
Dwyer, Eugene, "Augustus and the Capricorn," Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archeöologischen Instituts Römische Abteilung, 80, 1973, 59-67.
Effenberger, A., "Das Apsismosaik aus der ravennatischen Kirche San Michele in Affricisco. Versuch einer Rekonstruktion," Beiträge zur byzantinischen und osteuropäischen Kunst des Mittelalters, Berlin, 1977, 33-46.
Ehlers, W., "Triumphus," RE, 7AI, 1939, 493-511
Elsner, Jas, Imperial Rome and Christian Triumph, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1998
Fittschen, K., "Das Bildprogramm des Trajansbogens zu Benevent," Archäologischer Anzeiger 1972, 742-788.
Gabelmann, H., "Römische ritterliche Offiziere im Triumphzug," Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, 96, 1981, 439-451.
Göbl, Robert, Der Triumph des sasan. Sahpuhr über die Kaiser Gordianus, Phillipus und Valerianus: die ikonographische Interpretation des Felsreliefs, Vienna: Verlag der Osterr. Akad. d. Wissenswchaft, 1974.
Goell, H. A., De triumphi Romani origine, permissu, apparatu, via, Schleizae, 1854.
Gramotopol, M., "L'apothéose de Julien l'apostat et de Flavia Helena sur le grand camée de Roumanie," Latomus, 24, 1965, 870-885.
Gurval, Robert, Actium and Augustus: The Politics and Emotions of Civil War, Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1995 [triumph, Apollo]
Halsberghe, G. H., The Cult of Sol Invictus, Leiden: Brill, 1972.
Hannestad, Niels. Roman Art and Imperial Policy, Hjbjerg: Jutland Archaeological Society, 1986
Holliday, Peter, "Roman Triumphal Painting: Its Function, Development and Reception," Art Bulletin, LXXIX, 1, Mar 1997, 130-147
Hölscher, T., Vittoria romana, Thesis, Mainz, 1967.
Harl, Kenneth, Civic Coins and Civic Politics in the Roman East AD 180-275, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987, 38-51 ["Greek Views of the Conquering and Triumphant Roman Emperor"].
Hinton, N. D., "Lucan and the Man of Law's Tale," Papers on Language and Literature. 17, 1981, 339-46.
Janssen, Andreas Jozef, Het antieke tropaion, Brussels: Paleis der Academien, 1957.
Kleiner, Fred, "Triumphal Arches," in N. T. de Grummond, ed., The Historical Dictionary of Classical Archaeology, Westport, 1996
Kleiner, Fred, "The Trophy on the Bridge and the Roman Triumph Over Nature," L'Antiquité Classique, 60, 1991, 182-192
Kleiner, Fred, The Arch of Nero in Rome, Rome: Giorgio Bretschneider, 1985
Kleiner, Fred, "The Study of Roman Triumphal and Honorary Arches 50 Years After Kähler, Journal of Roman Archaeology, 2, 1989, 195-206
Knauer, E., Das Reiterstandbild des Kaisers Marc Aurel, Stuttgart: Reclam, 1968.
Koeppel, G. M., "Two Reliefs from the Arch of Claudius in Rome," Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts. Römische Abteilung, 90, 1, 1983, 103-109.
Kraus, T., "Zur Porte noire in Besançon," Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts. Römische Abteilung. 72, 1965, 171-181.
Lenzen, Victor, The Triumph of Dionysos on Textiles of Late Antique Egypt, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1960.
Loewry, E., Die Anfänge des Triumphbogens, Vienna, 1928.
L'Orange, Hans Peter, Apotheosis in Ancient Portraiture, Oslo: H. Aschehoug & Co., 1947, repr. New Rochelle: Caratzas Brothers, 1982.
L'Orange, Hans Peter, Studies in the Iconography of Cosmic Kingship in the Ancient World, Oslo: H. Aschehoug & Co., 1953; repr. New Rochelle: Caratzas Brothers, 1982.
MacCormack, Sabine, Art and Ceremony in Late Antiquity, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981.
Makin, E., "The Triumphal Route", Journal of Roman Studies, 11, 1921, 21ff.
Mansvelli, G. A., "Les monuments commémoratifs de la valée du Pô," Institut de France, Paris, Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres. Monuments et mémoires, 53, 1963, 24-30.
Matz, F., "Der Gott auf dem Elefantenwagen, Mainz," Abh. Akad. Wissenschaft und Literatur in Mainz, Geistes-und Sozialwiss. Klasse. 1952, 10ff.
McCormick, Michael, Eternal Victory: Triumphal Leadership in Late Antiquity, Byzantium, and the Early Medieval West, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Meyer, H., "Die Frieszyklen am sogenannten Triumphbogen des Galerius in Thessaloniki: Kriegschronik und Ankündigung der zweiten Tetrarchie," Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts. 95, 1980, 374-444.
Nicolet, C. The World of the Citizen in Republican Rome, Berkeley: UC Press, 1980, ch. IX.
Noack, F., "Triumph und Triumphbogen," Vorträge 1925-1926 der Bibliothek Warburg, Leipzig and Berlin, 1928, 147-200.
Nock, A. D., "Notes on the Ruler Cult," Journal of Hellenic Studies, 48, 1928, 21-33 [triumph of Dionysos].
Payne, Robert, The Roman Triumph, London: Robert Hale Limited, 1962.
Peirce, Philip, "The Arch of Constantine: Propaganda and Ideology in Late-Roman Art," Art History, 12, 4, 1989, 387-418.
Pfanner, Michael, Der Titusbogen, Mainz am Rhein: Philipp von Zabern, 1983.
Phillips, J. E., "Form and Language in Livy's Triumph Notices," Classical Philology, 69, 1974, 265-273.
Picard, G. Ch., Les trophées Romains, Paris, 1957.
Pickard-Cambridge. A., The Dramatic Festivals of Athens, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1952.
Pleket, H. W. "Games, prizes, athletes, and ideology. Some Aspects of the History of Sport in the Greco-Roman World," Arena, 1, 1975, 51-89
Pliny the Younger, Panegyric on Trajan, Loeb pp. 361-363, 371, 375-377, 437-439, 445, 459
Poliakoff, Michael B., Combat Sports in the Ancient World. Competition, Violence, and Culture, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1987 [last chapter discusses early christian athletic metaphors].
Pond Rothman, M. S., "The Thematic Organization of the Panel Reliefs on the Arch of Galerius," American Journal of Archaeology, 81, 1977, 427-454.
Price, Simon, Rituals and Power, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.
Reinach, Adolphe, "Les Têtes coupées et les trophées en Gaule," Revue celtique, 38-60, 1913, 253-286.
Richardson, J. S., "The Triumph of Metellus Scipio and the Dramatic Date of Varro," Classical Quarterly, 33, 2, 1983, 456-463.
Richardson, J. S., "Triumph, the Praetors, and the Senate in the Early 2nd Century," Journal of Roman Studies, 65, 1975, 50-63.
Rice, E. E., The Grand Procession of Ptolemy Philadelphus, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984.
Ritter, H. W., "Uberlegungen zur Inschrift des Augustusbogens auf dem Forum Romanorum," Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts. Römische Abteilung, 85, 1978, 371-384.
Rotili, Mario, L'Arco di Traiano, Rome: Istituto poligrafico dello Stato, Libreria, 1972.
Shepherd, D. G., "Alexander, the Victorious Emperor (Egyptian tapestry tunic ornament)," Cleveland Museum Bulletin, 58, Oct., 1971, 244-250.
Sidonius, Poems, Loeb ed., pp. 61-65
Silberberg-Peirce, Susan, "The Many Faces of the Pax Augusta: Images of War and Peace in Rome and Gallia Narbonensis," Art History, 9 , 1986, 306-324.
Storch, R. H., "The Absolutist Theology of Victory: Its Place in the late Empire," Classica et mediaevalia, 29, 1972, 197-206
Straub, Johannes, "Constantine as : Tradition and Innovation in the Representation of the First Christian Emperor's Majesty", Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 21, 1967, 37-56
Taisne, A. M. Le thème du triomphe dans la poésie et l'art sous les Flaviens," Latomus, 32, 1973, 485-504
Tanner (see General section above)
Vermeule, C.C. "Aspects of Victoria on Roman Coins, Gems, and in Monumental Art," Numismatic Circular, 1958, 3-15
Versnel, H. S., Triumphus. An Enquiry into the Origin, Development, and Meaning of the Roman Triumph, Leiden: Brill, 1970. [with further refs].
Vitruvius, On Architecture, Loeb, pp. 3-5
Warren, Larissa Bonfante, "Roman Triumphs and Etruscan Kings: The Changing Face of the Triumph," Journal of Roman Studies, 60, 1970, 49-66.
Warren, Larissa Bonfante, "Triumph", Studies in Honor of J. Alexander Kerns, The Hague: Mouton, 1970.
Zanker, Paul, Power of Images in the Age of Augustus, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1988.
Zwirn, Stephen, "The Intention of Biographical Narration on Mithraic Cult Images," Word and Image, 5, 1, 1989, 2-18
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