An example of urban/rural discussions in the field of suburban housing








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titreAn example of urban/rural discussions in the field of suburban housing
date de publication22.10.2016
taille29.23 Kb.
typeExam
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2.3.1. The structure of housing and the accessibility of the infrastructure
The SICOVAL on the outskirts of Toulouse :

an example of urban/rural discussions in the field of suburban housing
Themes addressed : 2.3.1 and 2.3.6
Outre ses thèmes de référence, cette étude de cas est particulièrement intéressante du point de vue de la complémentarité des politiques de développement qui se recoupent : l’aménagement de l’espace et la préservation du cadre de vie; le développement économique, le développement rural et la protection de l’environnement ( 60 % du territoire sont réservés à l’agriculture et aux espaces verts naturels); la maîtrise de l’urbanisation et la politique de l’habitat, ces politiques étant conduites par une structure intercommunale dynamique.
Type of partnership :
The SICOVAL is an association of different municipalities. It was created in 1975 to plan an activity park in the south eastern suburbs of Toulouse an d in 1996 was transformed into “ a community of towns ”. It represents an original attempt to create a new form of citiznship with respects both high technology and agriculture in urban and rural settings.
Du point de vue de sa position géographique, on peut dire qu’au sein du SICOVAL interviennent des partenariats de type urbain / rural et ce, dans une zone à influence à la fois métropolitaine (proximité directe de la métropole Toulousaine), périphérique (agglomération toulousaine) et rurale ( urbanisation progressive des espaces ruraux périphériques).
Identification :
NAME : SICOVAL ( Syndicat Intercommunal des Coteaux de la Vallée du l’Hers)
NUTE LEVEL : NUTE 3 / Nute 4
TOTAL POPULATION : 56 000 habitants (1997)
POPULATION BY AGE STRUCTURE - 19 27.88 %

20 - 49 48.14 %

49 - 60 10.71 %

+ 60 13.27 %

ACTIVE POPULATION BY ACTIVE SECTOR
Catégories socioprofessionnelles des habitants des communes d’Auzeville-Tolosane, Castanet-Tolosan, Escalquens, Labège et Ramonville-Saint-Agne


CSP

Nombre d’habitants

%

Agriculteurs exploitants

40

0.14%

Artisans, commerçants, chefs d’entreprises

792

2.82%

Cadres, professions intellectuelles

3888

13.86 %

Professions intermédiaires

3676

13.11 %

Employés

3476

12.39 %

Ouvriers

1841

6.56 %

Retraités

2720

9.70 %

Autres / Sans activité professionnelle

11614

41.41 %

TOTAL

28047

100.00 %


REGIONAL FUNCTIONALITY / PRODUCTIVE SPECIALIZATION
La zone du SICOVAL comporte une technopole représentant prés de 700 entreprises et 15 000 emplois.

A travers le dynamisme des universités et des grandes écoles, la densité des laboratoires de recherche, le tissu significatif de PME et la présence d’entreprises phares, le SICOVAL revendique quatre pôle d’excellence :
- Informatique avancée

- santé et dispositifs médicaux;

- agrobioscience;

- télédection

TYPE OF POLITICAL-ADMINISTRATION AND MAIN POWERS :
Le SICOVAL est une structure intercommunale à fiscalité propre regroupant 34 communes régies sous le régime des Communautés de Villes depuis 1996. L’originalité de la structure réside dans le partage de la taxe professionnelle entre les différentes communes membres.
MAIN ACTORS AND PROCESS OF DEVELOPMENT :
Les principaux acteurs qui concourent à la réussite de la structure sont les élus locaux, les collectivités locales (Département de la Haute-Garonne, et Région Midi-Pyrénées), les acteurs économiques et la population.
DEVELOPMENT MODEL
Deux types de modèles de développement sont relatés dans l’étude de cas qui va suivre :
- le premier fait référence à la structure intercommunale proprement dite, soit “ l’ossature institutionnelle ” du SICOVAL sous la forme de Communauté de Ville
- le second, plus sectoriel, renvoi aux différentes procédures d’urbanisme mises en oeuvre dans le cadre de la politique de l’habitat de la zone. (OPAH et PLH)


    CASE STUDIE

    Looking at the example of the organisation of the towns within the SICOVAL, a inter-town co-operation in the south-east of Toulouse, seems interesting as a means of illustrating the coming together of urban and rural interests and the progress of an inter-community structure which has pooled its combined resources, with a view to studying the development of a suburban and commercial area which is becoming more and more densely developed.

    Created in 1975 by six communes (administrative districts), as a common-interest group ,it was the first cross-commune structure in the Toulouse area to fully share the income derived from local business taxes between each of the member communes. The development of a zone to be developed with both private and public input (ZAC) was, at the origin of the creation of the Syndicat Intercommunal des Coteaux de la Vallée de l’Hers (SICOVAL) (An inter-commune common-interest group of the slopes of the Valley of the River Hers), which, having transformed itself, with the entry into the structure of numerous communes, into a public organisation for inter-commune co-operation with its own tax system, has little by little extended its areas of involvement to include land development, economic actions, the protection of the environment and housing policy.

    Today, the collection of towns in SICOVAL regroups 34 communes with nearly 56,000 inhabitants over 650 hectares. The area benefits from an estate for industries involved in high-technology with more than 700 companies and nearly 15,000 jobs including a scientific university and research laboratories.

    The organisation of the site :

    Buildings have been developed in rings around Toulouse, and along the line of the RN 113 (main road). The built-up zone corresponds to the outermost ring of the developed area around Toulouse where the density is near to its maximum away from the hill slopes. In the northern half of the SICOVAL, Lacroix-Falgarde has an independent development as a complete town turned towards the west.

    The rest of the site is made up of rural towns (Baziège, Montgiscard …), and of hamlets, linked by isolated farmhouses.

    Journeys and transportation :

    Public transport essentially serves only the built-up area. Well used in this area, it has not been adopted by those people who have chosen to live in the country and who rely purely on their cars, creating areas of frequent traffic jams. The motorway is not used as there are no appropriately situated exits.

    The principal centres of employment are situated along SICOVAL’s main roads. In 2007 the metro will serve the commune of Ramonville-Saint-Agne.

    The arrival of this new part of the infrastructure takes into account the effects of urban sprawl and the size of the population in the outskirts of Toulouse.

    Changes in the population and housing : general tendencies:

    Following supplementary surveys, the population of SICOVAL in 1997 was estimated at 55,511 inhabitants.

    The SICOVAL is a population growth area as, from 1982 to 1997, the communes have gained overall 44% more inhabitants, essentially due to a positive inflow of new inhabitants from outside the area (between 1982 and 1990 : + 7,660 new inhabitants from outside as against 2,040 new inhabitants by natural growth).

    The combination of the following points show the residential nature of the SICOVAL :



  • a large increase in the population in correlation with that of principal homes (+ 37 % between 1982 et 1990) ;

  • a large percentage of the working population who work outside the SICOVAL (80 %) ;

  • a larger proportion of families and children than in Toulouse;

  • a high rate of residential mobility (50 % of the inhabitants moved to a new home during the period 1982 et 1990) ;

  • a high percentage of homeowners (75 %) ;

  • a high percentage of large houses ( more than 40 % of principal homes have more than five principal rooms)



    The differences are visible within the area :



  • the northern zone concentrates 70 % of the inhabitants, the population is better off, most of the rented accommodation, notably social, is found here;

  • the southern zone is more rural, farming is still largely present, the working population are less qualified, the housing stock is older, the level of facilities less standardised, there are more empty houses and less urban pressure;

  • the area of hill slopes near to Toulouse is less densely populated and consists of largely well-off households in detached houses on large plots.



    So far as housing construction is concerned, home owners are in the majority, they occupy 74% of principal residences. The total of new homes for the period 1990-1996 reached 4388, an increase in the annual rate of production from 500 homes in the period 1982-1989 to 600 homes.

    80 % of the housing has been authorised to the north of a line from Lacroix-Falgarde to Auzielle passing through Péchabou. In this area, a third of the housing relates to Castanet. To the south of this line, the main road the RN 113, in conjunction with Baziège, dominates the planning permissions with the highest proportion in Ayguesvives.

    Most of the buildings constructed are detached houses. The construction of blocks of flats is limited to the more urbanised areas. The south of the SICOVAL is really specialised in detached houses.

    In the face of the arrival of new residents, the SICOVAL, through its experience in housing policy, has begun a programme to put new life into its housing.

    The setting up of a Local Housing Programme :

    The Loi d’Orientation pour la Ville (L.O.V.)( Directives for the Town) n° 91-662 of 13 July 1991 and its operation order in connection with the Programmes Locaux de l’Habitat (P.L.H.) (Local Housing Programmes) n° 92-456 of 21 May 1992, affirmed the need to put the housing policies into operation using inter-communal initiatives and confirmed the usefulness of the PLH.

    In accordance with these texts, the PLH of the SICOVAL passed between the State and the inter-communal structure was approved by the areas Town Council meeting on 4 November 1996.

    The instigation of an Opération Programmée d’Amélioration de l’Habitat (OPAH) (A structured operation to improve housing) for a three year period from 1998, is written into the PLH and should contribute to achieving the same objectives.



  • to improve the quality of rented accommodation and also the accommodation of owner occupiers on modest incomes, today of poor quality ;

  • to develop the supply of rented accommodation both in quantity and quality by putting vacant premises back onto the rented market;

  • to maintain and develop building activity ;

  • to improve in a general sense the living conditions of the local population by planning and development led by the communes.



    The OPAH, by putting vacant property back onto the market, by improving the living conditions in rented housing, and by developing the access to the rented housing stock of the SICOVAL for lower income households, is seen as the best way of replying to some of the local rental demand and also of contributing to the assertion of identity of the communes and of the SICOVAL to renovate their property within the local architectural style.



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