Performance Tuning Guidelines for Windows Server 2008 R2








titrePerformance Tuning Guidelines for Windows Server 2008 R2
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date de publication11.06.2018
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Choosing a Network Adapter


Network-intensive applications require high-performance network adapters. This section covers some considerations for choosing network adapters.

Offload Capabilities


Offloading tasks can reduce CPU usage on the server, which improves overall system performance. The Microsoft network stack can offload one or more tasks to a network adapter if you choose one that has the appropriate offload capabilities. Table 5 provides more details about each offload capability.

Table 5. Offload Capabilities for Network Adapters

Offload type

Description

Checksum calculation

The network stack can offload the calculation and validation of both Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) checksums on sends and receives. It can also offload the calculation and validation of both IPv4 and IPv6 checksums on sends and receives.

IP security authentication and encryption

The TCP/IP transport can offload the calculation and validation of encrypted checksums for authentication headers and Encapsulating Security Payloads (ESPs). The TCP/IP transport can also offload the encryption and decryption of ESPs.

Segmentation of large TCP packets

The TCP/IP transport supports Large Send Offload v2 (LSOv2). With LSOv2, the TCP/IP transport can offload the segmentation of large TCP packets to the hardware.

TCP stack

The TCP offload engine (TOE) enables a network adapter that has the appropriate capabilities to offload the entire network stack.

Receive-Side Scaling (RSS)


Windows Server 2008 R2 supports Receive Side Scaling (RSS) out of the box, as does Windows Server 2008. RSS distributes incoming network I/O packets among processors so that packets that belong to the same TCP connection are on the same processor, which preserves ordering. This helps improve scalability and performance for receive-intensive scenarios that have fewer networking adapters than available processors. Research shows that distributing packets to logical processors that share the same physical processor (for example, hyper-threading) degrades performance. Therefore, packets are only distributed across physical processors. Windows Server 2008 R2 offers the following optimizations for improved scalability with RSS:

NUMA awareness.

RSS considers NUMA node distance (latency between nodes) when selecting processors for load balancing incoming packets.

Improved initialization and processor selection algorithm.

At boot time, the Windows Server 2008 R2 networking stack considers the bandwidth and media connection state when assigning CPUs to RSS-capable adapters. Higher-bandwidth adapters get more CPUs at startup. Multiple NICs with the same bandwidth receive the same number of RSS CPUs.

More control over RSS on a per-NIC basis.

Depending on the scenario and the workload characteristics, you can use the following registry parameters to choose on a per-NIC basis how many processors can be used for RSS, the starting offset for the range of processors, and which node the NIC allocates memory from:

*MaxRSSProcessors

HKLM\system\CurrentControlSet\Control\class\{XXXXX72-XXX}\\(REG_SZ)
The maximum number of RSS processors assigned to each NIC.

*RssBaseProcNumber

HKLM\system\CurrentControlSet\Control\class\{XXXXX72-XXX}\\(REG_SZ)
The first processor in the range of RSS processors assigned to each NIC.

*NumaNodeID

HKLM\system\CurrentControlSet\Control\class\{XXXXX72-XXX}\\(REG_SZ)
The NUMA node each NIC can allocate memory from.

Note: The asterisk (*) is part of the registry parameter.

For more information about RSS, see the document about Scalable Networking in "Resources" later in this guide.

Message-Signaled Interrupts (MSI/MSI-X)


Network adapters that support MSI/MSI-X can target their interrupts to specific processors. If the adapters also support RSS, then a processor can be dedicated to servicing interrupts and DPCs for a given TCP connection. This preserves the cache locality of TCP structures and greatly improves performance.

Network Adapter Resources


A few network adapters actively manage their resources to achieve optimum performance. Several network adapters let the administrator manually configure resources by using the Advanced Networking tab for the adapter. For such adapters, you can set the values of a number of parameters including the number of receive buffers and send buffers.

Interrupt Moderation


To control interrupt moderation, some network adapters either expose different interrupt moderation levels, or buffer coalescing parameters (sometimes separately for send and receive buffers), or both. You should consider buffer coalescing or batching when the network adapter does not perform interrupt moderation. Interrupt Moderation helps reduce overall CPU utilization by minimizing per-buffer processing cost, but the moderation of interrupts and buffer batching can have a negative impact on latency-sensitive scenarios.

Suggested Network Adapter Features for Server Roles


Table 6 lists high-performance network adapter features that can improve performance in terms of throughput, latency, or scalability for some server roles.

Table 6. Benefits from Network Adapter Features for Different Server Roles

Server role

Checksum offload

Segmentation offload

TCP offload engine (TOE)

Receive-side scaling (RSS)

File server

X

X

X

X

Web server

X

X

X

X

Mail server (short-lived connections)

X







X

Database server

X

X

X

X

FTP server

X

X

X




Media server

X




X

X


Disclaimer: The recommendations in Table 6 are intended to serve as guidance only for choosing the most suitable technology for specific server roles under a deterministic traffic pattern. User experience can be different, depending on workload characteristics and the hardware that is used.

If your hardware supports TOE, then you must enable that option in the operating system to benefit from the hardware’s capability. You can enable TOE by running the following command:

netsh int tcp set global chimney = enabled

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